Cambodia is a country in Southeast Asia, a member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and part of the Lower Mekong River region. Cambodia faces a high level of disaster risk and is ranked 58th most at-risk of 191 countries in the INFORM Risk Index in 2024. Over 80% of Cambodia’s territory is covered by the basins of the Mekong River and Tonlé Sap, and this situation exposes the country to seasonal flooding. In fact, riverine flooding is the most significant hazard Cambodia confronts; the second is epidemic disease. Cambodia is also exposed to storms, cyclones, landslides, lightning strikes, fires, and droughts.

Cambodia is highly vulnerable to the impact of climate change. In 2020, Cambodia was ranked as the 12th most climate risk-prone country globally, according to the Global Climate Risk Index. Climate change is projected to exacerbate flooding and drought risks and decrease Cambodia’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by as much as 10% by 2050. Sectors most affected by climate change are agriculture, infrastructure, forestry, human health, and coastal areas. Human activity, such as upstream dam construction and deforestation, threaten to reduce the productivity of agriculture in the Tonlé Sap basin and Cambodia’s inland fisheries, and these reductions could threaten the livelihoods and food security of poorer, rural communities.