The report emphasises the importance of enhancing the efficiency of social protection programmes in Bangladesh to attain the SDGs, particularly to meet the needs of the ‘left behind’ population. In 2016, about 65.6 per cent of the social protection programme participants in the country belonged to the non-poor category. Taking cue from field level evidence on implementation of five major social protection programmes in four North-West districts of the country, the study recommends targeted reforms at both national and programme specific levels. The study suggests ways to improve existing monitoring and evaluation systems and raising the efficacy of the grievance redress mechanism, and argues for creation of a comprehensive database of potential beneficiaries. The study concludes that active participation of the grassroots organisations in various stages of the implementation process will significantly enhance the overall efficiency in the delivery of social protection programmes in Bangladesh.