In the context of the International Year of Artisanal Fisheries and Aquaculture 2022, FAO, the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) and the collaborative research initiative One Ocean Hub have been collaborating to raise awareness of the full scope of the human rights framework applicable to small-scale fisheries. This policy brief aims to clarify the scope of the international human rights framework, including the corresponding State obligations, and to highlight how the coherent protection of these rights supports the realization of multiple Sustainable Development Goals.