This review presents summary information on 45 river and great lake basins of the world, which support inland fisheries. The information presented is drawn from published information in peer-reviewed journals as well as grey literature. Each basin summary is presented in a common format, covering the description of the fishery, estimates of catch and numbers of people engaged in the fishery, important biodiversity features and threats to the fishery. An analysis of the replacement costs of inland fish of the basin is also presented. This is expressed in terms of the water, land and greenhouse gas footprint that would arise if the inland fish that are currently produced had to be replaced with other forms of food (such as aquaculture fish, livestock or field crops).