Aquaculture is the new sunrise sector with respect to fish production. Developing countries of Asia are the world leaders, with a large population dependent on the sector. Though a plethora of literature is available on aquaculture, there is a lacuna with regards to specific studies on the human rights aspects of the same. This study is an effort to bring focus on this void and the facets that need to be examined if aquaculture is to become sustainable and is able to contribute towards various sustainable development goals as envisaged. As the human dependence on the sector is very high, the study emphasises the need and importance of placing a human rights-based framework at the centre stage of future growth of aquaculture in India. This will steer the development towards an environmentally sound and socially just path, a prerequisite for the sector. the objective of the study is to understand the strengths of legislation, guidelines, schemes and other government documents with regard to the defence of human rights; review and analyse the environmental and social impacts of aquaculture systems as seen in the literature review; and to suggest a set of recommendations that could help fill the gaps in the current systems as identified by this study. The monograph will be of use to researchers, scientists, fishworker organisations, environmentalists and anyone interested in aquaculture development in India.