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Issue No:74
  • :August
  • :2016


On an empty beach
in sunlight
I built my castle
the wind was my architect
together we sculpted
soft curves from the dunes
I found ribbons of seaweed
sprawling like handwriting
in the tideline of debris
washed from the sea of knowledge
with these I garlanded the walls
I made a roof from shells
that giggled stories about crabby hermits
and boring barnacles
someone has spilt black
tar on my castle
ink black sticky stains
that burn where they touch me
that burn
—Gabriellr Maughan



A Time for Reigning In?

Big environmental NGOs are being ceded concessions for large protected areas of land and sea without proper monitoring, control and enforcement

This article is by Gilles Lhuilier (, Professor of Law, Ecole Normale Supérieure, Rennes, France, and Scientific Director of the GLSN, a Research Programme on the globalization of law of the Fondation Maison des sciences de l’homme (FMSH) in Paris (

States are ceding land and marine concessions to large environmental non-govern-mental organizations (ENGOs), which are often set up as ‘trusts’. These ENGOs then manage the environmental reserves ceded to them on behalf of the States. The board of these trusts, whose activities are financed by transnational corporations, then decide by themselves—without any democratic control—environmental actions to be undertaken. Local communities and citizens are often uninformed about these projects or kept out of managing these environmental reserves. They are also often direct victims like artisanal fishers and peasants.

Whilst the fight to combat climate change has, in large part, been entrusted by States to large ENGOs, and, for various reasons, transnational corporations finance these NGOs,...

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